Maximizing your “Paw”-Fits: Structuring Your Veterinary Practice the Right Way
Choosing the right business structure for a veterinary practice is a vital decision that can have significant consequences for the future of your practice. If a veterinarian selects the wrong structure, it can cost their business a significant amount of money. Choosing a correct business structure for a veterinary practice is a fundamental decision that will impact your business daily and should be guided by an attorney. The main factors to consider when structuring your business are: (1) the financial issues and tax consequences; (2) limited liability; and (3) flexibility versus formality. Selecting a business structure is one of the most important decisions you will make for your practice. In selecting the right entity, substantial tax, legal, and accounting expertise is recommended. It is advantageous to start your business on a good foot, and while it may look daunting to hire expert consultants at the beginning of your endeavor, it is a valuable investment for your future success. The proper structure of your veterinary practice will allow you to reap all the possible benefits and increase your chances at a successful practice. However, it is recommended for veterinarians to stay active in the process in order to ensure that the expert’s proposals reflect the needs and goals of your practice.
Tax benefits are a primary driver when choosing a proper legal structure for a veterinary practice. Two key aspects include: taxation on income/profits and taxation on the sale/transformation of a practice.
Limited liability is another significant consideration when deciding between business entities. The majority of independent veterinary practitioners around the country have traditionally operated as a partnership or sole proprietorship. However, there is a growing trend towards incorporating a practice and/or forming LLC’s as a vehicle for running the business because the structures various benefits. This business structure combines features of a corporation and has elements of a partnership and/or sole proprietorship. Limited liability companies can be tactical from a tax standpoint. Single member LLCs can be taxed either as a ‘C’ Corp or sole proprietorship. Multi-member LLC’s can elect to be taxed as either a ‘C’ Corp or partnership. However, this can be dependent on the state, as not every state allows for veterinarians to form an LLC (for example, California). There are many benefits for the LLC Sub ‘S’ structure. These types of entities are treated the same as any other corporation under state law. Although under federal law, ‘S’ corps do not receive federal tax.
For certain veterinary practices, it can be advantageous to be the only owner and in complete control of the practice. There would be no requirement for seeking approval and or consent of any partners, members, or officers. With a sole proprietorship, there are also minimum to no reporting requirements. Sole proprietorships do not need to file an annual report with the state or federal government. However, under a sole proprietorship, a veterinarian will be held personally liable for all general debts and liabilities of the practice. Moreover, in a partnership, each partner is jointly and severally liable for the debts and obligations of the business. In comparison to sole proprietorships and partnerships, the significant advantage of a corporation or LLC is that the owners of the business (the shareholders/and or members) enjoy the benefits of limited liability.
There is one big exception; however, in that a veterinarian is always liable for his/her own professional negligence and negligence of other employees. Insurance is the only avenue to mitigate this kind of liability, and it a necessity in veterinary practices.
Benefits of Flexibility and Adhering to Formalities
Certain entities also provide more flexibility and can be less of a burden than others. Veterinarians often ignore these formalities, which can be a serious mistake. In certain instances, courts have looked past the liability shield and have held owners personally liable for failing to observe the formalities of separating their personal affairs from their veterinary practice.