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Veterinary Law Blog

A Guide on the Upcoming Minimum Wage Increases in New Jersey

July 1, 2019

In early January, Governor Phil Murphy and Democratic leaders of the Legislature struck a deal that would raise the minimum wage to $15.00 per hour in New Jersey. On Monday, February 4, Governor Murphy followed through on his campaign promise, signing the legislation that will increase the state’s minimum wage over the next few years.[1]  This deal places New Jersey among the most progressive states in the nation, joining California, New York, and Massachusetts, in phasing into a $15 hourly wage.[2]

While the wage increases are seen to be beneficial for employees, numerous small to medium-sized businesses are apprehensive about the reforms and impact on company revenues.  The good news is that the impending changes provide an opportunity for New Jersey employers to audit their pay practices and ensure that they are in compliance with all wage and hour laws.  Below summarizes the potential impact of the new ordinance and provides some tips for adjusting to the wage increases:

I.                   Increases will continue through 2024

The new minimum wage ordinance will not occur immediately.  Rather, the deal sets forth a gradual increase until it reaches $15 dollars per hour in January 1, 2024.  The current minimum wage in New Jersey is $8.85 per hour.  The following chart details the scheduled increases in the state’s minimum wage.

  • On July 1, 2019 – the minimum wage will increase to $10.00 per hour.
  • On January 1, 2020 – the minimum wage will increase to $11.00 per hour.
  • On January 1, 2021 – the minimum wage will increase to $12.00 per hour.

The minimum wage would then increase on January 1 by $1 each year from 2022 to 2024 until topping out at $15 per hour.[3]  The new minimum wage will apply to most workers in the state, although there are a few so called carve-outs.  The deal calls for most wage earners to receive a minimum of $15 an hour by 2024, but includes a slower schedule for workers at seasonal businesses, small businesses with five or fewer employees, and farmworkers.  Farm workers, for example, will see their minimum wage climb to just $12.50 an hour over five years.  Seasonal workers and small businesses with five people or fewer would see their minimum wages reach $15 an hour by 2026.[4]

II.                The Business Impact

Although raising the minimum wage is generally seen as beneficial for employees, there can be certain costs for businesses operating in the state.  Specifically, small businesses in New Jersey could feel the brunt of the minimum wage increases.  Opponents believe that the announcement reflects another potential hit to small businesses who are already absorbing cumulative costs in other forms of new mandates by the Murphy administration.  Nearly 70 percent of respondents to the latest NJBIA business-outlook survey[5] said their businesses would be impacted in some way if the state were to enact legislation mandating a $15 minimum wage.  To offset such a requirement, they said some businesses — though not a majority of them — would reduce staff and working hours, and enact price increases or turn to automation.[6]

Overall, it is estimated that over 1 million New Jersey workers will be impacted by the minimum wage changes, according to the governor and lawmakers.[7]  As a result, employers and businesses should weigh the impact of a higher minimum wage on profitability, hiring, and overall finances.

III.             Staying Compliant

Now more than ever, states, counties, and cities, who do not see movement at the federal level, are implementing specific minimum wage laws in their jurisdictions. As a result, employers must ensure that they comply with federal, state, and local minimum wage laws.  While the federal minimum wage ($7.25 per hour) isn’t changing next year, the state of New Jersey and many other states will have new minimum wage rates throughout 2019.

These new minimum wage ordinances can increase compliance risks for employers, requiring new workplace postings and changes to existing workplace policies.  Therefore, employers need to be cognizant of the legal liabilities they could face if company wage and hour policies are not in compliance prior to the increase.  Compliance is essential; employers in violation of payroll regulations can face penalties, including steep fines and civil litigation.  When dealing with questions about minimum wage and overtime statutes, it is recommended that all employers consult with experienced counsel.

IV.             Preparing for the Changes: Adjusting Pay Structures

In states that have significantly increased their minimum wages, the financial impacts often occur immediately and can be burdensome for small business owners.  Employers should find ways to manage the effect on increase of pay structures.  For example, if the minimum wage increases and jobs that currently pay $10 an hour are not entry-level positions – but a next level up – there could be a compression issues. Thus, employers should adjust their payment structures and account for them to be shifted up.  The best way for making this wage shift can depend on the specific company and its compensation structure.  Employers do not have to adjust all levels, but it is important to consider adjusting lower-paid jobs from a certain hourly rate on down.

V.                Employees Earning More than the Minimum Wage

When the minimum wage increases, some employers wonder if they should also provide a raise to employees already earning equal to or more than the new rate.  For example, if the minimum wage increases from $9 per hour to $10 per hour, should an employee already earning $10 per hour also get a raise?  While the employer is under no obligation to provide a raise, some employees may be expecting one.  In this scenario, the employer should consider the potential impact on labor costs, employee morale, internal equity (how employees are paid when compared with other employees within your company based on skills and experience), and the typical merit increase schedule.

VI.             Conclusion

As a result of Governor Murphy’s new deal, New Jersey’s minimum wage will continue to increase, starting July 1, 2019.  With the patchwork of federal, state, and local minimum wage laws becoming more complicated, employers and organizations will need to pay more attention to the these issues and payment structures.  Paying small business employees fairly begins with gaining a good understanding of the minimum wage laws.  In doing so, employers need to remain compliant and cognizant to changes at the federal, state, and municipal level.  Advanced legal planning will help employers – both public and private sector – to comply with the new minimum wage thresholds.

Enlisting the help of outside legal counsel can assure compliance with the complex patchwork of different minimum wage laws. Mandelbaum Salsburg P.C. is a full-service law firm focusing on providing exceptional legal counsel to its clients. Our labor and employment attorneys are uniquely qualified to assist you and your business in achieving full compliance with New Jersey labor laws. Please feel free to contact us if there are any issues that we can assist you with.


Mandelbaum Salsburg P.C. provides legal alerts to inform readers regarding trending legal issues and developments in the law. This communication does not create, offer, or reduce to writing the existence of an attorney-client relationship.   This communication is not legal advice and may not apply to the specific facts of any particular matter.

For more information, please contact Peter Tanella at 973.243.7915 or

[1] New Jersey Becomes 4th State to Increase Minimum Wage to $15, CBS News (February 5, 2019),

[2] Nick Corasaniti, In New Jersey, the Minimum Wage is Set to Rise to $15 an Hour, new york times (Jan. 17, 2019),

[3] Mike Catalini, New Jersey Governor, Lawmakers Make $15 Minimum Wage Deal, nbc philadelphia (Jan. 18, 2019),

[4] Murphy, Dems Reach Minimum Wage Deal, nj herald (Jan. 18, 2019),

[5] NJBIA’s 60th Annual Business Outlook Survey, New Jersey Business & Industry Association,

[6] Id.

[7] David Levinsky, Murphy, Legislative Leaders Reach Deal on $15 Minimum Wage, (Jan. 17, 2019)

Cannabis in the vet industry

June 30, 2019

Pot for Spot?: Legal issues surrounding the treatment of veterinary patients with Cannabis

California has become the first state to give veterinarians the legal protection to discuss medicinal cannabis as a form of animal treatment, but the question is should other states follow suit? Under federal law cannabis is strictly illegal and is considered a schedule 1 controlled substance; which makes many veterinarians afraid to discuss cannabis use with pet owners due to the guidelines of their professional licenses. Federal law is extremely different from the various state laws which may allow medicinal/recreational use of cannabis. However, state issued laws regarding the consumption of cannabis in humans do not apply to use in animals. CBD infused products have swept the market, due to the increase in the legalization of medical and recreational marijuana throughout the United States. These factors have led many pet owners to question whether it is safe to treat their pets’ ailments with medicinal cannabis, but in 49 states they are not allowed to discuss this proposition with their veterinarian. The reluctancy from veterinarians to discuss cannabis treatment for their patients has led patients to take their animals’ treatment into their own hands, with many pet owners conducting online research and treating their animals with unregulated products that contain cannabinoids. According to a 2018 study conducted by Colorado State University’s veterinary medicine researchers, almost eighty percent of 1,068 dog owners who participated in the survey admitted to buying cannabis infused products for their pets.

The internet is flooded with CBD infused animal treats and miracle stories about how CBD saved animals lives. However, it is hard to decipher fact from falsity in an area that has been notoriously under researched and viewed as illegal. Albeit; because of the rise of the legality of cannabis use in humans, there has been a recent rise in studies concerning animals and cannabis; these studies have shown evidence that cannabis can be beneficial for cats and dogs who suffer from diseases such as epilepsy, anxiety and arthritis, without the typical side effects of prescription medication. The FDA has the authority to regulate all products which claim to have therapeutic properties; the agency focuses on the safety and efficacy of the products. Since there has not been many studies on the effect of cannabis in animals, there has only been one product that is derived from cannabis that have been approved by the FDA in a extralabel manner by veterinarians, while following the guidelines of the Animal Medicinal Drug Use Clarification Act.

In addition to the legal ramifications, and licensing concerns, there have been a substantial amount of veterinary cases of Cannabis toxicosis in pets, which usually stems from animals consuming edibles intended for human consumption. To bolster this ailment, most of the edibles are made with other products which are toxic to animals such as chocolate, raisins and xylitol; which lower the chances of the animal making a full recovery. There have been several deaths reported due to cannabis toxicosis in animals and have led many pet owners and veterinarians to be suspicious of using cannabis to treat ailments in animals.

For more information contact Peter H. Tanella at

Independent Contractor or Employee

June 29, 2019

Independent Contractor or Employee: What’s the Difference?
By: William S. Barrett, Esq. and Casey Gocel, Esq., LL.M.

It's a vexing question for practice owners: How do you classify a potential new veterinarian who is joining your practice? Is the veterinarian an independent contractor or an employee?

The misclassification of an employee as an independent contractor can result in serious financial ramifications, including taxes, fines, and penalties from both state and federal agencies.

What is an independent contractor?

Generally, veterinarians are independent contractors if they have control over the number of patients they see and their work schedule. They are not independent contractors if they perform services that can be controlled by the practice.

Practices often classify veterinarians as independent contractors to avoid having to comply with state and federal withholding requirements and payroll taxes. The practice simply issues 1099s to the veterinarian at the end of each year, and the veterinarians are responsible for reporting their income, which is subject to self-employment tax.

What is an employee?

If the practice has control over the veterinarians' patient load and schedule, they are employees of the practice. Employees are supervised by the practice and may be entitled to certain benefits and protections under state and federal laws. For instance, the practice is responsible for withholding a portion of employees' earnings for tax purposes.

4 classification factors

Independent contractors have complete autonomy over their work lives, whereas employees must answer to and abide by their employers. State and federal agencies consider four primary factors when determining if a veterinarian is an employee or an independent contractor.

1. Supervision

The first factor is who supervises the veterinarian. There are four questions to be answered:

  • Is the veterinarian under direct control of the practice's supervisors?
  • Does the veterinarian work for other practices?
  • Who is responsible for corrective treatment and addressing such issues with the patients?
  • Does the practice provide the veterinarian with any training?

2. Scheduling

This factor concerns a veterinarian’s schedule and hours:

  • Do the patients belong to the practice or the veterinarian?
  • Who schedules the patients?
  • Who determines the veterinarians hours?
  • Can the veterinarian refuse to treat certain patients?
  • Does the veterinarian have to request time off?

3. Benefits and insurance

This category focuses on insurance, healthcare coverage, and more:

  • Who pays for the veterinarian’s healthcare insurance?
  • Who pays for the veterinarian’s malpractice insurance?
  • Who pays for the veterinarian’s licensing fees and continuing education credits?
  • Is the veterinarian entitled to any benefits from the practice, such as paid time off or a retirement account?

4. Payment and expenses

The following five questions can sometimes be contentious, so it's best to spell them out clearly:

  • Who determines the rates paid by the veterinarian’s patients?
  • How is the veterinarian paid?
  • Does the practice provide the veterinarian with tools, supplies, and equipment?
  • Who pays for laboratory fees?
  • Does the veterinarian independently pay to advertise services?

Misclassification consequences

If an agency, such as a state department of labor or the U.S. Internal Revenue Service, audits a practice and finds that the practice has misclassified a veterinarian as an independent contractor, the consequences of a misclassification can be severe. The agency will likely seek payment of unpaid employment, disability, and Social Security taxes, along with additional interest and penalties. This could potentially cost the practice millions of dollars.

In addition, the misclassified veterinarian may be retroactively entitled to insurance coverage and other benefits that should have been offered by the practice if the veterinarian had been properly classified as an employee. If the veterinarian is deemed to be a nonexempt employee and worked more than 40 hours in any given week, the practice will also be responsible for back payment of overtime.

What can a practice do to protect itself?

The only fail-safe way to survive an audit is to classify veterinarian and staff in compliance with the criteria established by federal and state laws. Although this list is not exhaustive or foolproof, it is a start for identifying the best practices for maintaining classification as independent contractors:

“Compliance with a well-crafted independent contractor agreement is the best defense in a reclassification audit.”

  • The veterinarian establishes their own business entity with its own Federal Employer Identification Number that the practice will contract with.
  • The veterinarian procures their own general and professional liability insurance.
  • The veterinarian is solely responsible for paying appropriate taxes on revenue they receive from the practice.
  • The veterinarian is solely responsible for their own business expenses and provide their own tools, supplies, and materials, as necessary.
  • The veterinarians do not receive any benefits or bonuses from the practice.
  • The veterinarians establish their own work schedule and vacation schedule.
  • Theveterinarians sign a written agreement that provides that they are an independent contractor, that they meet the criteria of an independent contractor, and will indemnify and hold the practice harmless.

Compliance with a well-crafted independent contractor agreement is the best defense in a reclassification audit.

William Barrett, Esq., is the CEO of Mandelbaum Salsburg, a law firm in Roseland, NJ.

Casey Gocel, Esq., LL.M. is a member in Mandelbaum Salsburg's corporate and professional practice transitions groups.

Opioid Epidemic

June 28, 2019

When Two-Legged Epidemics Reach Our Four- Legged Friends: Veterinarians and the Opioid Crisis

It is common knowledge that an opioid epidemic has been sweeping the nation, but many veterinarians do not realize that they have a responsibility to help curve the abuse of pain medication in their practice. Opioids are extremely powerful pain-relieving medications, that are commonly prescribed to treat intense pain. However, these drugs are also extremely addicting, and can cause overdoses in humans and in pets; but the pets are not the problem. Recently a study was conducted by the Colorado School of Public Health, which concluded that a large amount of the veterinarians who were surveyed were concerned that their clients have intentionally hurt their pets in the hope of receiving a prescription for pain killers. Out of the surveyed population, almost forty five percent of the veterinarians knew a pet owner or employee who was abusing opioids. In addition, the University of Pennsylvania Veterinary medicine school analyzed the number of opioids dispensed at their veterinary school for ten years, and concluded that prescriptions rose forty-one percent annually, when the number of new patients only rose thirteen percent.  

There have been many incidents of animal abuse by a pet owner in the hopes of obtaining prescription medication. For example, a woman in Kentucky was arrested after she admitted to cutting her dog with a razor blade with the intention of obtaining and consuming pain medication through her veterinarian. The most commonly targeted pain killer that is carried in most veterinary practices is tramadol, because it is highly addictive and is typically prescribed to both humans and animals. Other commonly abused drugs by pet owners include Xanax and Valium, whose prescriptions are extremely difficult to obtain through a physician.  These methods are a way for drug addicts to obtain drugs under the radar, so it is imperative for veterinarians to be observant and meaningfully participate in the effort to end the opioid epidemic.

A combination of incidents has pushed the Food and Drug Administration to offer new resources for veterinarians who stock and prescribe opioids. The resource outlines six steps that veterinarians can take to help combat opioid abuse in their practice. It is recommended that veterinarians have an emergency plan outlined if they are ever in a situation in which they suspect opioid diversion, or clients harming their animals in attempt to gain access to pain killers; local police departments are the best people to help advise veterinarians on a plan of action if they ever encounter these dangerous situations.  The FDA released a list of tip-off’s that can help veterinarians determine if a client is abusing opioid medication: suspect injuries in new clients, pet owners asking for a specific drug by name, asking for refills because medication was lost or stolen, and having a general demanding attitude about their request. However, it is not only pet owners that veterinarians need to worry about, it is also necessary for them to monitor the behavior of their employees who have access to the drugs. There are many warning signs that a staff member is abusing pain medication such as: lack of focus, frequently missing work, mood swings and anxiety. In addition, it is important for veterinary practice owners to have checks and balances regarding their ordering, storage, administration and dispersion of opioids for the health of their employees and for their own legal protection. This outbreak has made many states create control measuring laws for prescribing opioids. For example, Maine enacted a Prescription Monitoring Program, which must be checked before prescribing opioids and benzodiazepines to animals. The program requires the veterinarian to state the reasoning for the prescription and the physical condition of the animal; logging it into a statewide database, which helps to limit repeat abusers. In addition, the state of New Jersey signed the most restrictive law, limiting a five-day supply of initial opioid prescriptions, and require veterinarians to share the data with fourteen other states to help combat abuse. Many groups are currently pushing for other states to adopt New Jerseys restrictive laws in order to help combat the opioid crisis that is now affecting us all.

For more information please contact Peter H. Tanella at

What to Consider When Leaving a Veterinary Practice

June 26, 2019

The Veterinary Divorce: The Considerations When Leaving a Veterinary Practice

While departing from a veterinary practice may seem like a trivial task, it can often be a complex decision and process. When dealing with a “veterinary divorce”, both parties should engage in careful considerations to protect both the clients and the veterinarians.  This article will provide a brief overview of the best practices to consider for a veterinarian leaving his/her veterinary practice – from both the perspective of the veterinary practice group and the individual veterinarian(s).

Contract Review:

First, the veterinarian and surviving practice should review their existing contracts in the event that a veterinarian leaves.  The two most important agreements to consider is the employment agreement and a shareholder buy-sell agreement (if one exists).  These two contracts can have a significant degree of importance if the departing veterinarian wants to continue their practice.

The Employment Agreement

Veterinary practices commonly require their employees to sign an employment agreement when they begin working for the veterinary practice.  When dealing with the termination of a relationship, both the employee and employer should understand the details of their employment contract.

    a. Terms: Veterinary employment agreements may be for a fixed term or they can be continuous.  For example, some agreements will have a policy addressing the time period that a veterinarian must be employed by the practice.  When an employment agreement contains a fixed term, an employee leaving or an employer firing before that term is considered in breach of contract.  Other employment agreements lack a definite term, and are considered “at-will”, where either party can terminate the relationship at any time.  Contracts that are “at-will” will typically require that the terminating party give advance notice to the other party.
    b. Notice: Employment agreements typically agreement contain a notice period before a veterinarian’s termination of employment.  In the event that the veterinarian fails to give contracted notice to the employer or practice, he or she can be sued for a breach of contract.
    c. Transition Costs: The employment agreement may also cover transition costs.  In order to cover the costs of a departing veterinarian’s absence, the practice may seek recovery for costs associated with hiring a temporary veterinarian until the practice finds a permanent replacement.  When the practice must pay deferred compensation, they may try to offset damages against the compensation to be paid.
    d. Non-Compete Agreement: Lastly, both parties should be aware of any non-competition or non-solicitation clauses in their employment agreement.  Many employers require employees to sign a non-compete clause that forbids the employee from competing with the employer.  Both the employer and employee should be aware of the non-compete agreement, which may be limited in scope (geographic proximity) and in time (for example, two years after termination).

Shareholders Buy-Sell Agreement

When changes in veterinarians causes an economic divorce, a buy-sell agreement can provide a fair resolution.  A buy-sell agreement is a contract between business owners that determines what occurs to business ownership upon a triggering event, such as death, disability, bankruptcy, or disputes among shareholders.  A buy-sell agreement essentially is an agreement for exiting a practice, and veterinary Buy-sell agreements frequently require a mandatory buy-back of shares.

Thus, if a buy-sell agreement exists, it should be reviewed for any buy-back provisions. The buy-sell agreement would provide a share price, either by an accounting formula or arbitration process.  The agreement may also cover the following events:

    a. Death: In the majority of states, when a veterinarian dies or becomes disqualified (due to losing his/her license), the corporation must buy-back the veterinarian’s shares.  A death buy-back is usually paid in a lump-sum using the proceeds of life insurance.
    b. Disability: In the event that a veterinarian becomes disabled, the veterinary corporation can buy-back his or her shares.  The practice can pay through a disability buy-back on a promissory note, or by using the proceeds of disability insurance.
    c. Disputes: When a dispute arises between two veterinarians, the buy-sell agreement may include a procedure for buy-out.  The procedure is typically as follows: the first party offers to buy the second out – and the second has the choice – either to be bought out or to use an identical term and buy the other party out.  Either way, the price would be fixed for the buy-out, and one of the veterinarians will leave the practice group.

Additionally, as mentioned above, the parties should beware of any non-competition or non-solicitation clauses in a buy-sell agreement.

Compensation after Termination

When a veterinarian leaves a practice, the practice may provide compensation after the termination date.  First, there could be a salary owed to the date of termination plus accrued

vacation time.  Second, there may be compensation owed for the veterinarian’s share in accounts receivable or collection of a pro-rated share of year end-bonuses.

Exit and Severance Agreement

When an employer decides to terminate its relationship with an employee, it can be advantageous for both sides to enter into an agreement defining their rights and obligations.  This agreement is often called a severance agreement.  A severance agreement acts as a contract for the employee; however, there is no law requiring employers to offer severance packages.  There are two major parts of a severance agreement: the agreement and the release.  The agreement outlines what the veterinarian would get in return for their release, and details what the severance package consists of.  The release, in essence, is a statement that releases the company from any liabilities associated with the employees exit.

Exit and severance agreements are useful for both parties because they can prevent misunderstandings that can lead to litigation.  The agreements may contain provisions against future competition (“non-compete” clauses) and confidentiality provisions relating to the agreement itself.  For veterinarians, severance agreements often contain the content of notice by the departing veterinarian and can discuss the duties of retaining client records.  Lastly, these agreements act a useful tool for employers because they can release liability.  The exit and severance agreement can control and/or negate the veterinarian’s right to pursue claims for prior acts of discrimination, harassment, equal pay, or wrongful termination.

When the relationship of veterinarians and/or veterinary practices comes to an end, it is advisable that these considerations be addressed.  If not resolved by negotiation, these types of disputes can result in protracted and expensive litigation.  An experienced counsel can help the parties reach an acceptable division, which can be a victory for all of the parties involved.

For more information, please contact Peter Tanella at 973.243.7915 or

Attorney: Peter Tanella
Related Practice: Veterinary Law
Category: General Practice Governance